Taiwan Bills in the Congress

118th Congress, 2023 – 2024

U.S. Senators Marco Rubio (R-FL) and Jeff Merkley (D-OR) reintroduced the Taiwan Relations Reinforcement Act to update and bolster U.S. policy to support Taiwan amid China’s increased military and diplomatic aggression.

If the bill were passed, it would elevate the status of the Director of the American Institute in Taiwan (AIT) to “Representative,” and the appointment of the U.S. Representative to Taiwan would have to be approved by the Senate, as is required for all U.S. Ambassadors.

It would also, among other things, require the U.S. President to create an “Interagency Taiwan Policy Task Force” consisting of senior U.S. officials who would submit an annual report to Congress detailing actions that should be taken to enhance U.S.-Taiwan relations.

U.S. Rep. Lance Gooden (R-TX), with 14 of his colleagues, introduced this resolution urging the Biden administration to formally and respectfully invite Taiwan’s President Tsai Ing-wen to attend the November 2023 APEC leaders’ summit in San Francisco, California, on an equal footing with leaders of other APEC member states.

Taiwan is a full member in good standing of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and an increasingly important economy in the Asia-Pacific region and globally. It deserves equal respect and treatment given to all other APEC members, including receiving the invitation for Taiwan’s president to attend the annual “APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting.”

U.S. Senators Marsha Blackburn (R-TN) and Ed Markey (D-MA) introduced this bipartisan resolution urging U.S. colleges and universities to support the U.S.-Taiwan Education Initiative and collaborate with Taiwan to create Mandarin-language education programs as an alternative to China’s propaganda fueled Confucius Institutes.

The move comes amid a sharp decline in Chinese government-funded Confucius Institutes, which are facing pressure from the U.S. government due to allegations that they are involved in propaganda and espionage activities directed by Beijing.

The bill aims to deter China’s invasion of Taiwan by establishing conditions for suspending “normal trade relations” with the People’s Republic of China (PRC).



Regarding Taiwan, the bill directs the U.S. Secretary of Defense to establish a “comprehensive training, advising, and institutional capacity-building program” for the military forces of Taiwan.

The program would be aimed at enabling a “layered defense” of Taiwan by Taiwanese forces, including through the use of an asymmetric defense strategy, and would also boost interoperability between Taiwan and U.S. forces and encourage information sharing, the bill says.

The legislation would also require U.S. officials to engage with Taiwan on expanding military cybersecurity cooperation.

The U.S. House passed its version of the FY24 NDAA (H.R.2670) on July 14, 2023, which includes an amendment proposed by U.S. Rep. Tom Tiffany (R-WI) prohibiting the Pentagon from spending funds on any map that depicts Taiwan as part of China.

This bill confirms the U.S. Congress’ support for the initial agreement signed on June 1, 2023 under the U.S.-Taiwan Initiative on 21st Century Trade, and seeks to require Congressional consultation and approval for any subsequent trade agreements with Taiwan.

The bill, which cleared the U.S. House of Representatives on June 21, 2023, was passed in the Senate by a voice vote on July 18, 2023. It was signed into law by President Joe Biden on August 7, 2023.



This bill calls to rename Taiwan’s de facto embassy in the U.S. from the “Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office” (TECRO) to the “Taiwan Representative Office” (TRO).

This Act provides that it shall be the policy of the United States, consistent with the “Taiwan Relations Act” and the “Six Assurances,” to provide the people of Taiwan with de facto diplomatic treatment equivalent to foreign countries, nations, states, governments, or similar entities.

Taiwan’s de facto embassy in the U.S. represents not just the city of Taipei, but the country of Taiwan as a whole. The current title of the office does not reflect the national identity and dignity of Taiwan.

Referring to Taiwan as “Taiwan” is consistent with longstanding U.S. policy. We therefore have the “TAIWAN Relations Act,” “TAIWAN Travel Act,” etc., and an “American Institute in TAIWAN” (AIT).



This bill would authorize the Biden Administration to negotiate and conclude a tax agreement with Taiwan.

Similar to a tax treaty, this U.S.-Taiwan tax agreement would play a key role in facilitating investment between the United States and Taiwan, including in key strategic industries such as semiconductors, by making it easier for businesses in the U.S. and Taiwan to avoid double taxation while protecting against tax evasion.



This bill would require the Pentagon to expand cybersecurity cooperation with Taiwan to counter cyber threats from China.

Specifically, the bill would authorize the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to: (1) conduct cybersecurity training exercises with Taiwan; (2) defend Taiwan’s military networks, infrastructure, and systems; (3) leverage U.S. cybersecurity technologies to help defend Taiwan; and (4) eradicate ongoing malicious cyber activity targeting Taiwan.



This bill would require the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), the Department of Commerce, the Department of State, and other federal agencies to report to Congress on the United States’ “non-kinetic options” to both prepare for and respond to a Communist China’s attack on Taiwan, including opportunities to sanction the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and preempt Beijing’s retaliatory measures.

The bill cleared the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee (SFRC) on June 8, 2023 with two provisions added: The bill should not be seen as a change to the U.S.’ “one China policy” and should not be seen as authorizing the use of military force.



This bill aims at supporting U.S.-Taiwan partnership by authorizing a defense lend or lease program with the Government of Taiwan to deter Communist China’s preemptive aggression.

Under the bill, the U.S. President may lend or lease defense articles to Taiwan’s government with interest, as part of efforts to protect Taiwan from potential aggression carried out by the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) of China.

This bill aims to counter China’s attempts to distort United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 2758 and undermine Taiwan’s participation in international organizations.

The bill clarifies that UNGA Resolution 2758 only dealt with the issue of China’s representation in the UN.

“The resolution did not address the issue of representation of Taiwan and its people in the United Nations or any related organizations, nor did the resolution take a position on the relationship between the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan or include any statement pertaining to Taiwan’s sovereignty,” the bill emphasizes.

The bill also underscores that “the United States opposes any initiative that seeks to change Taiwan’s status without the consent of the people.”

The bill cleared the U.S. House Foreign Affairs Committee on May 16, 2023, and passed the U.S. House of Representatives unanimously on July 25, 2023.

This bill, which amends the “Taiwan Assurance Act of 2020,” would require the U.S. State Department to periodically conduct reviews of its guidelines for engagement with Taiwan, and submit updated reports to Congress at least once every two years.

The reports to Congress must: (1) explain how the guidance deepens and expands U.S.-Taiwan relations, and reflects the value, merits, and importance of the U.S.-Taiwan relationship; (2) give due consideration to the fact that Taiwan is a democratic partner and a free and open society that respects universal human rights and democratic values; (3) ensure that the conduct of relations with Taiwan reflects the longstanding, comprehensive, and values-based relationship the U.S. shares with Taiwan, and contribute to the peaceful resolution of cross-Strait issues; and (4) identify opportunities to lift any remaining self-imposed limitations on U.S.-Taiwan engagement and articulate a plan to do so.

This bill requires actions to support Taiwan’s participation in the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

The U.S. Governor of the IMF must advocate for (1) Taiwan’s admission into the IMF as a member, (2) Taiwan’s participation in the IMF’s regular surveillance activities relating to Taiwan’s economic and financial policies, (3) employment opportunities at the IMF for Taiwan nationals, and (4) Taiwan’s ability to receive IMF technical assistance and training.

This concurrent resolution calls for the U.S. to (1) resume normal diplomatic relations with Taiwan, (2) abandon its antiquated “One China Policy,” (3) negotiate a U.S.-Taiwan bilateral free trade agreement (FTA), and (4) support Taiwan’s membership in international organizations.